Lasting Landscapes by Carol

Spring Blues

Each year in March, Longwood Gardens announces a special display in their conservatory that features the elusive Himalayan blue-poppies (Meconopsis ‘Lingholm’). Visitors like me flock to see these rare blue flowers. Because blue is my favorite color, I constantly search for flowers that add a touch of blue to the garden. This quest is no small task because blue is the rarest flower color, seen in only 10 percent of flowering plants. Today, I’m happy to share some of my favorite blue spring flowers that will add some pizazz to your landscape.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Meconopsis ‘Lingholm’ in bloom at Longwood Gardens

Mertensia virginica (Virginia Bluebells) flower buds open to reveal blue bell-shaped flowers in mid-spring. Virginia bluebells naturalize readily in a woodland setting if allowed to go to seed. Be prepared to tolerate the yellowing foliage of this plant as it goes dormant. Placing it among emerging perennials is a great strategy for keeping a tidier look during its decline. This US native is an early nectar source for pollinators and is beautiful combined with daffodils or Celandine poppies (Stylophorum diphyllum).

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Mertensia virginica naturalizes in a woodland setting

Scilla siberica (Siberian Squill) is an early spring bloomer that expands into a sea of blue. I planted mine in a bed of Astilbe where the emerging leaves of Astilbe quickly cover the decaying foliage of Scilla as it goes dormant. Like Scilla, Chionodoxa luciliae (Glory Of The Snow) blooms early in the season and performs best planted in large drifts. Both Scilla and Chionodoxa will add a great pop of blue – why decide between the two. Plant them both!

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Scilla siberica’s vibrant display
Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Chionodoxa luciliae planted in the lawn at Longwood Gardens

Muscari armeniacum (Grape Hyacinth) will naturalize quickly when left undisturbed so place these plants where they can do their thing. Hyacinthoides hispanica (Spanish Bluebells) are tough plants can tolerate lots of soil and light conditions and they stay in bloom for weeks in late spring. Both are wonderful plants to share since they multiply rapidly.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Muscari armeniacum for sale at a local market
Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Hyacinthoides hispanica displays bell-shaped blue-violet flowers

Amsonia hubrichtii (Arkansas Blue Star) has feathery foliage topped with pale blue flowers in late spring. This native plant is popular not only for blue flowers, but also for great fall color and deer resistance. A winner all around.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Amsonia hubrichtii in full bloom

While at a client’s house recently, I noticed her gorgeous Delphinium. The electric blue really popped against the color of her house. I might have to add this blue to my spring garden for next year since its color is so bold and impactful.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
An electric blue Delphinium

Corydalis flexuosa performs best in the Pacific Northwest and dislikes the hot and humid summer conditions often experienced in the Philadelphia suburbs where I live. Despite the poor prognosis for its survival, I had to have it, if only for a fleeting flower display.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Corydalis flexuosa with azure blue flowers

Veronica is the last plant I’ll mention for adding some blue to your spring flower display. The cultivar ‘Georgia Blue’ makes a wonderful carpet under shrubs or at the front of the border. The flowers are an intense violet blue. Veronica peduncularis ‘Waterperry Blue’ has a similar habit, but a more muted violet blue flower.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Veronica ‘Waterperry Blue’
Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Veronica ‘Georgia Blue’

I hope you’ll consider joining me in the blues festival. Let me know what plants you decide to add to your garden or share some of your favorites with me.

woodland trail

Taking Notice

I love hiking in the woods. I find that moving forward step by step on a natural path while inhaling fresh air is therapeutic on many levels. I often wonder how many people really notice what is around them when they are walking in the woods. Have you taken note of the plants along your hiking path? Our natural environments give us great opportunities to observe some of our native plants as well as some of the invasive species that are infiltrating our forests.

During a recent hike in the woods near my home I found a number of wonderful native plants worthy of adding to any shade garden. Most of these plants are considered spring ephemerals. They grace us with their presence in early spring and disappear by early summer.

Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman’s Breeches) provides a delicate texture to the early spring garden with finely dissected foliage. The flowers resemble little pantaloons, which gives this plant its common name.

dicentra cucullaria foliage
Although this plant wasn’t blooming, the texture alone made it garden worthy.


Erythronium Americanum (Dogtooth violet or Trout Lily) has spotted leaves that resemble a trout’s markings. The graceful, nodding yellow flower adds contrast to the striking leaves.

yellow dogtooth violet flower with log
The gorgeous foliage and blooms of the trout lily

Podophyllum peltatum (Mayapple) has umbrella shaped leaves. While many are solid green, some display impressive color and variegation.

mayapple foliage in green
The umbrella shaped leaves of the Mayapple plant
variegated mayapple leaf with moss covered log
This particular Mayapple had attractive variegation

Allium tricoccum (Ramps) provide two seasons of interest and food for the table. Sometimes called wild leeks or wild garlic, they can be harvested for tasty meals. I prefer to leave them in the ground so I can enjoy the adorable Allium like flowers that emerge in the summer after the foliage has disappeared. Polemonium reptans (Jacobs Ladder) grows to a 12-inch mound. In addition to the interesting leaf structure and delicate purple flowers, these plants happily seed around my garden.

ramp foliage emerging
The strappy foliage of Ramps combined well with the tiny leaves of Jacob’s Ladder


Symplocarpus foetidus (Skunk cabbage) loves moist conditions and can often be seen along streams or in low areas. The flowers are quite impressive in form and color. Don’t worry, the plants only smell like skunk if you bruise the leaves.

skunk cabbage emerging from wet soil
Skunk cabbage emerging from a boggy site
skunk cabbage with maroon flower
A maroon Skunk cabbage flower


Claytonia virginica (Spring Beauty) have narrow leaves and pretty white or pink flowers with dark pink veining. They naturalize easily and can be planted in lawns for an early season display of color.

pink spring beauty flower with red veining
The pink-veined flower of a sweet Spring Beauty

Despite many wonderful native plants (I have only featured some of what you might see), there are some invasive plants as well. If you see them on your property, it’s best to remove them. By doing so, you’ll help save the forests and make room for other, more desirable plants!

Rosa multiflora (Multiflora Rose) is considered a noxious weed in Pennsylvania. These plants rapidly expand by seed and by a process called layering where the arching branches touch the ground, root and expand into an impenetrable thicket.

multiflora rose foliage
The foliage of Multi-flora rose

Berberis thunbergia (Japanese barberry) is a non-native woody plant that became popular because of its color forms and deer resistance. Barberry has escaped into the wild and is now disrupting natural ecosystems. Plant breeders have developed sterile varieties that produce no seed. If you are going to plant a barberry, I suggest you seek out one of the newer, non-invasive options.

barberry growing in woodland
A barberry shrub growing on the woodland floor

Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive) is tough and fast growing, quickly crowding out native vegetation. Originally planted for erosion control and valued for its deer resistance, this plant should be eradicated if found on your property.

russian olive leaves with silver backs
The silver-backed foliage of Russian Olive helps with identification of this invasive

Lesser celandine is one of the most aggressive weeds I have seen in recent years. Favoring moist soil, it colonizes quickly and produces inordinate amounts of seed. To make matters worse it also spreads by bulblets and tuberous roots. Many think the yellow flowers are pretty, but trust me, it’s best to eradicate this pest as quickly as you can before it controls your landscape.

lesser celandine yellow flower with green foliage
The noxious Lesser Celandine weed that seems to be taking over many natural areas and even residential lawns.

The next time you hike through the forest, take notice of what’s around you. Cherish the wonderful native plants you see and learn how to spot invasive species  Being good stewards of your own property is good for the soul, just like a walk in the woods.


Lasting Landscapes by Carol

Here Today, Gone Tomorrow

More than ever I am focused on the present moment. My plans rarely extend beyond the end of the week. As I spend more time at home and many hours in my garden, I realize how much I appreciate the beauty and fleeting life cycle of the spring ephemerals that are taking center stage in my landscape right now.

According to the dictionary, ephemeral means ‘lasting for a very short time.’ That definition accurately describes many plants which emerge quickly in the spring to take advantage of the light before the trees have leafed out. These sun loving, tough specimens grow quickly, bloom, set seed and then retreat underground until the next season. This entire life cycle often takes only a couple of months. Most emerge in March or April and have completely disappeared by June when the canopy of deciduous trees and the foliage of surrounding perennials have stolen their light.

This short bloom time makes ephemeral plants perfect for layering in the garden. While many perennials are just beginning to wake up from a winter’s nap in April, ephemerals are already stealing the show. I also love that a number of these plants are tiny and best appreciated up close. To me, nothing is better than wandering around the garden looking for hidden treasures and upon finding them, getting down on my hands and knees to admire them up close. Having dirty knees is right up there with dirty fingernails in my book – both signs of a passionate gardener.

Let me introduce you to some of my favorites. Thalictrum thalictroides (Rue Anemone) is an adorable wildflower, reaching only about 6 inches tall. I pair Thalictrum with Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern). The Thalictrum fill in the gaps between the ferns while the fiddleheads begin to emerge.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Thalictrum with the fiddleheads of Christmas fern in the background

Trillium erectum (Red Trillium) has mottled foliage and gorgeous burgundy flowers. I don’t have many Trillium since the deer like them too, but I appreciate their presence and stately stature.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Trillium erectum

Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman’s breeches) blooms look like little pantaloons, thus the name. The delicate, dissected foliage is delightful and adds a lacey texture and whimsy to the landscape.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
The foliage of Dutchman’s breeches

Mertensia virginiana (Bluebells) naturalize beautifully and create carpets of blue on the woodland floor. I adore the delicate flowers and admire their determination as they will set seed and grow anywhere, including the crevices of rocks.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
A crowd favorite

Sanguinaria canadensis (Bloodroot) magically appears in different places each year. Ants eat the seeds and disperse them. I always look forward to seeing where they pop up. Multiplex is a particularly beautiful cultivar. Although Multiplex is a sterile form and doesn’t set seed, clumps can be divided and moved around the garden.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Bloodroot ‘Multiplex’

Claytonia virginica (Spring beauty) petals sport pink stripes which remind me of bloodshot eyes, but instead they are a sight for sore eyes.

Lasting Landscapes by Carol
Spring Beauty

Hopefully you are out looking for treasures in your garden and finding them in loveliness of spring ephemerals. If you don’t have any ephemerals, consider adding them as they will bring you joy in the present moment and for years to come.